As the infomercials always say, "But wait, there's more!" If simultaneous Clojure and ClojureScript REPLs, interactive programming, code completion, stacktrace navigation, test running, and debugging weren't enough for you, CIDER delivers several additional features.

Evaluating Clojure Code in the Minibuffer

You can evaluate Clojure code in the minibuffer at almost any time using M-x cider-read-and-eval (bound in cider-mode buffers to C-c M-:). TAB completion will work in the minibuffer, just as in REPL and source buffers.

Typing C-c C-v . in a Clojure buffer will insert the defun at point into the minibuffer for evaluation. This way you can pass arguments to the function and evaluate it and see the result in the minibuffer.

You can also enable other convenient modes in the minibuffer. For instance, you might want to have both eldoc-mode and paredit-mode available to you:

(add-hook 'eval-expression-minibuffer-setup-hook #'eldoc-mode)
(add-hook 'eval-expression-minibuffer-setup-hook #'paredit-mode)

Using a Scratchpad

CIDER provides a simple way to create a Clojure scratchpad via the M-x cider-scratch command. This is a great way to play around with some code without having to create source files or pollute the REPL buffer and is very similar to Emacs's own *scratch* buffer.

Expanding Macros

Typing C-c C-m after some form in a source buffer or the REPL will show you the macro expansion of the form in a new buffer. You'll have access to additional keybindings in the macro expansion buffer (which is internally using cider-macroexpansion-mode):

Keyboard shortcut Description
m Invoke macroexpand-1 on the form at point and replace the original form with its expansion. If invoked with a prefix argument, macroexpand is used instead of macroexpand-1.
a Invoke clojure.walk/macroexpand-all on the form at point and replace the original form with its expansion.
g The prior macro expansion is performed again and the current contents of the macro expansion buffer are replaced with the new expansion.
Undo the last in-place expansion performed in the macroexpansion buffer.

Inspecting Values

Typing C-c M-i after some form in a source buffer or the REPL will show you the structure for the result of the form in a new buffer. You can also use C-u C-c M-i to inspect the result of the current top-level form and C-u C-u C-c M-i to read an expression from the minibuffer and inspect its result. You'll have access to additional keybindings in the inspector buffer (which is internally using cider-inspector-mode):

Keyboard shortcut Description
Tab or Shift-Tab Navigate inspectable sub-objects
Return Inspect sub-objects
l Pop to the parent object
g Refresh the inspector (e.g. if viewing an atom/ref/agent)
SPC Jump to next page in paginated view
M-SPC Jump to previous page in paginated view
s Set a new page size in paginated view

Displaying Local Values with Enlighten Mode

Enlighten Mode displays the value of locals in realtime, as your code runs. This feature is somewhat similar to a feature in the Light Table editor.

To turn it on, issue M-x cider-enlighten-mode. Then, evaluate your functions one at a time using C-M-x or C-x C-e. Note that C-c C-k won't work.

That's it! Once your code executes, the regular old buffer on the left will turn into the brilliant show of lights on the right.

Enlighten Mode Disabled Enlighten Mode Enabled
Disabled Enabled

To stop displaying the locals you'll have to disable cider-enlighten-mode and reevaluate the definitions you had instrumented previously.

You can also trigger this on specific functions (without having to turn on the minor mode) by writing #light before the (def and re-evaluating it.

Reloading Code

While Clojure's and CIDER's interactive programming style means you'll restart your application far less often than with other languages and development environments, sometimes you'll want to clean everything up and reload one or more namespaces to ensure that they are up to date and there are no temporary definitions hanging around.

Typing C-c M-n r or C-c M-n M-r will invoke cider-ns-refresh and reload all modified Clojure files on the classpath.

Adding a prefix argument, C-u C-c M-n n, will reload all the namespaces on the classpath unconditionally, regardless of their modification status.

Adding a double prefix argument, C-u C-u M-n n, will first clear the state of the namespace tracker before reloading. This is useful for recovering from some classes of error that normal reloads would otherwise not recover from. A good example is circular dependencies. The trade-off is that stale code from any deleted files may not be completely unloaded.

cider-ns-refresh wraps, and as such the same benefits and caveats regarding writing reloadable code also apply.

The above three operations are analogous to, and (followed by a normal refresh), respectively.

You can define Clojure functions to be called before reloading, and after a successful reload, when using cider-ns-refresh:

(setq cider-ns-refresh-before-fn "user/stop-system!"
      cider-ns-refresh-after-fn "user/start-system!")

These must be set to the namespace-qualified names of vars bound to functions of no arguments. The functions must be synchronous (blocking), and are expected to be side-effecting - they will always be executed serially, without retries.

By default, messages regarding the status of the in-progress reload will be displayed in the echo area after you call cider-ns-refresh. The same information will also be recorded in the *cider-ns-refresh-log* buffer, along with anything printed to *out* or *err* by cider-ns-refresh-before-fn and cider-ns-refresh-start-fn.

You can make the *cider-ns-refresh-log* buffer display automatically after you call cider-ns-refresh by setting the cider-ns-refresh-show-log-buffer variable to a non-nil value. This will also prevent any related messages from also being displayed in the echo area.

(setq cider-ns-refresh-show-log-buffer t)

By default, CIDER will prompt for whether to save all modified Clojure buffers. You can customize this behavior with cider-ns-save-files-on-refresh.

Sometimes, cider-ns-refresh may not work for you. If you're looking for a bit more forceful reloading the cider-ns-reload and cider-ns-reload-all commands can be used instead. These commands invoke Clojure's (require ... :reload) and (require ... :reload-all) commands at the REPL.

Tracing Function Execution

You can trace the arguments supplied to and the result values produced by functions using C-c M-t v. CIDER will prompt you for the name of the function you want to trace, defaulting to the previous top-level definition.


Invoking C-c M-t v again for the same function will result in the function being untraced.

You can also use C-c M-t n to toggle tracing on and off for an entire namespace.

Browsing the Classpath

You can easily browse the items on your classpath with the command M-x cider-classpath.

Here you can see it in action:

Classpath Browser

Press RET on a classpath entry to navigate into it.

Browsing Namespaces

You can browse the contents of any loaded namespace with the command M-x cider-browse-ns. CIDER will prompt you for the namespace to browse.

Namespace Browser

You can also browse all available namespaces with M-x cider-browse-ns-all.

There are a bunch of useful keybindings that are defined in browser buffers.

Keyboard shortcut Description
d Display documentation for item at point.
RET Browse ns or display documentation for item at point.
s Go to definition for item at point.
^ Browse all namespaces.
n Go to next line.
p Go to previous line.

Browsing the Clojure Spec Registry

If you are using Clojure 1.9 or newer you can browse the Clojure spec registry.

If you already know which spec you're looking for, you can type M-x cider-browse-spec and CIDER will prompt you for a spec name and then drop you into the spec browser.

Spec Browser

If you aren't quite sure which spec you want, you can type M-x cider-browse-spec-all. CIDER will then prompt you for a regex and will filter out all the spec names that don't match.

Spec Browser

Once in the browser you can use your mouse or the keybindings below to navigate deeper.

Keyboard shortcut Description
RET Browse the spec at point.
^ Go up in the navigation stack.
n Go to next spec.
p Go to previous spec.
e Generate an example for the current browser spec.

If your project includes the org.clojure/test.check library, you can type e when browsing a spec to generate an example that meets the spec.

Spec Browser Example

Generating Documentation Cross References

Sometimes in your documentation strings, you'd like to be able to point other programmers at different definitions. If you specify the name of a definition in backticks (`), CIDER will convert these references into live links when it displays the documentation string in the documentation buffer.

If the name is in another namespace, then you'll have to include the fully qualified name in the docstring.

Example function with a docstring containing references:

(defn test-fn
  "Test function.
  Also see: `clojure.core/map`, `clojure.core/reduce`, `defn`.
  You can reference variables like `thor`, ``.
  Also works with references to java interop forms, `java.lang.String/.length`."
  (+ 1 1))

You can change the delimiters that CIDER uses to find references if you don't like using backticks. Simply update the regexp in cider-doc-xref-regexp to match your preferred format. The first group of the regexp should always match the cross-reference name. For example, if you want to want to use Codox's delimiter style ([[...]]) instead of backticks, the regexp would be:

(setq cider-doc-xref-regexp "\\[\\[\\(.*?\\)\\]\\]")

CIDER See Also